The Ekman 6. 0 Faces Test as a diagnostic instrument in frontotemporal dementia. Abstract. Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is characterized by dramatic changes of personality and behaviour. Impaired ability of emotional processing could contribute to these symptoms, as it may lead to misinterpretation of emotional cues that would normally guide behaviour. The aim of the present study was to investigate if the Ekman 6. Faces Test, an instrument to test the recognition of basic facial emotions, enables the differentiation between patients with mild FTD and cognitively healthy subjects (HC). We found that compared to 3.
FTD were impaired in the recognition of basic emotions. At a cut- off score from 4.
The Ekman 60 Faces Test as a diagnostic instrument in. was to investigate if the Ekman 60 Faces Test. software for the test was available. Facial Expressions of Emotion: Stimuli and Test. The Ekman 60 Faces test uses a range of photographs to test recognition of six basic. 158A Test Software; 1. Title: What is on the TVTC FEEST CD ROM Subject: Facial Expression of Emotion: Stimuli and Tests Keywords: TVTC FEEST Ekman 60 Faces Test Emotion Hexagon manual TCPDF.
Ekman 6. 0 Faces Test discriminated between patients with mild FTD and HC with 9. The results of the present study were consistent with the findings of prior studies on smaller patient samples. Keywords. Frontotemporal dementia; Behavioural disturbances; Recognition of emotions; Ekman 6.
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Faces Test. 1. Introduction. Frontotemporal lobar neurodegeneration (FTLD) causes 3. Hodges, Davies, Xuereb, Kril, & Halliday, 2. Ratnavalli, Brayne, Dawson, & Hodges, 2.
Recent consensus criteria (Neary et al., 1. FTLD into three major subtypes: (1) frontotemporal dementia (FTD), denoting a behavioural syndrome with selective involvement of the frontal and/or temporal cortices; (2) semantic dementia defined as a disorder of language, semantics and recognition of visual percepts caused by predominant anterior temporal pathology; and (3) progressive non- fluent aphasia, a syndrome associated with asymmetric degeneration of the frontotemporal cortex in the language- dominant hemisphere. Behavioural disturbances in FTD often occur before cognitive deficits become obvious.
Impairment of modulating behaviour results in inappropriate responses or activities. One of the first conspicuous symptoms is the dissolution of social attachment.
Patients are indifferent and unconcerned about their spouses, relatives or friends. Social behaviour often becomes superficial, tactless, rude and sometimes foolish. Disinhibition may be observed in terms of hyperorality or inappropriate sexual behaviour. Patients are inflexible, rigid and unable to adjust to their environment.
Affect is typically shallow and monotonous. Some patients show euphoric or even hypomanic mood. Patients with FTD may be overactive and show motor restlessness or pressure of speech. Apathetic behaviour, however, is more frequent. Typically, there is a lack of insight into the disease (Diehl & Kurz, 2. Greck & Kurz, 2.
Neary et al., 1. 99. In contrast, however, the disease has little impact on the patients’ cognitive performance at the early stage. Basic memory and spatial abilities are relatively preserved. Patients typically achieve normal scores on simple cognitive screening tests, which makes these instruments insensitive for the detection of FTD (Hodges & Miller, 2.
Even the results of more demanding neuropsychological tests including tests for frontal lobe functions can be within a normal range at the early stage (Gregory, Serra- Mestres, & Hodges, 1. It is not clear which mechanisms give rise to the dramatic changes of personality and behaviour that occur in patients with FTD. Impaired ability of emotional processing could contribute to the behavioural disturbances in FTD, as it may lead to misinterpretation of emotional cues that would normally guide behaviour. Recognition of affective states, particularly the basic emotions such as sadness, disgust, anger, fear and surprise, is a prerequisite of intact social behaviour. A great deal of interpersonally relevant information is gathered from the observation of faces.
Deficits in processing these perceptions could make appropriate reactions impossible. Most brain structures that participate in the recognition of basic emotions involve perceptual processing (i. Adolphs, 2. 00. 2).
Emotion recognition from facial expressions: a normative study of the Ekman 6. Faces Test in the Italian population. The Ekman 6. 0- Faces (EK- 6.
F) Test is a well- known neuropsychological tool assessing emotion recognition from facial expressions. It is the most employed task for research purposes in psychiatric and neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, such as the behavioral variant of Frontotemporal Dementia (bv.
FTD). Despite its remarkable usefulness in the social cognition research field, to date, there are still no normative data for the Italian population, thus limiting its application in a clinical context. In this study, we report procedures and normative data for the Italian version of the test. A hundred and thirty- two healthy Italian participants aged between 2. В years with at least 5. В years of education were recruited on a voluntary basis. They were administered the EK- 6.
F Test from the Ekman and Friesen series of Pictures of Facial Affect after a preliminary semantic recognition test of the six basic emotions (i. Data were analyzed according to the Capitani procedure . The regression analysis revealed significant effects of demographic variables, with younger, more educated, female subjects showing higher scores. Normative data were then applied to a sample of 1. FTD patients which showed global impaired performance in the task, consistently with the clinical condition.
We provided EK- 6. F Test normative data for the Italian population allowing the investigation of global emotion recognition ability as well as selective impairment of basic emotions recognition, both for clinical and research purposes.
Keywords. Social cognition. Emotion recognition. Ekman 6. 0- Faces Test. Standardization. Behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia.